Saturday, February 8, 2020
Entrepreneurship - Essay Example As a fast growing company that cares for the environment, Greenenergy has received many awards and recognition in the UK and other markets. Greenenergy started supplying low sulphur fuels to reduce on air pollution in all markets. However, the company shifted from low sulphur fuels to bio fuels to address the growing concern of global climatic change. Greenenergy has grown rapidly to be a leading supplier of fuel in the UK. The company supplies about 10 billion litres fuels including petrol, bio fuels and diesel. This is more than 25% of all road fuel that is supplied in Britain (Greenenergy 2012). GreenenergyÃ¢â¬â¢s main customers include supermarkets and oil companies. These are the major retailers of road fuels. Fleet users are major customers for diesel. Although Greenenergy supplies large amounts of road fuels, it does not own any petrol stations but supplies fuels to its customers in bulk. GreenenergyÃ¢â¬â¢s objective is to expand its operation by offering high quality prod ucts at low prices to its customers. This strategy has worked to attract new customers and retain existing customers. Consequently, GreenenergyÃ¢â¬â¢s market share has been expanding since its establishment. The company evaluates its supply chains to increase their efficiency and cut costs. Consequently, Greenenergy can sell its products at low prices without compromising on quality. ... Some of the factors that influence a new ventureÃ¢â¬â¢s success include the time spent in the business, amount of start-up capital, risk management strategies, and government policies. The characteristics of the entrepreneur have significant influence on business success. The level of ambition and experience of the entrepreneur will determine their persistence in new markets. Experienced entrepreneurs are likely to last longer in the market and achieve significant levels of success (Gelderen, Thurik & Bosma 2003, p.319). This implies that an entrepreneur plays a significant role in the growth and sustainability of a new business in the market especially in risk management. The approach that an entrepreneur uses to launch their business will depend on the amount of information, experience and skill that the entrepreneur possesses. Gilbert and Erying (2010, p. 92) indicate that successful entrepreneurs have the capacity to analyse risks involved in a new venture. Successful entrepren eurs identify and eliminate risks systematically. Ignoring risks could lead to losses in a business and sometimes an entrepreneur is forced to exit the industry. Thus, systematic elimination of risks enables entrepreneurs to tackle risks in the right order with the right methods and resources. Every entrepreneur must recognise that risks are different and have different effects on a businessÃ¢â¬â¢s growth process. A wrong approach to eliminating risks may lead to the failure of a new business venture. This implies that the level of success for any new venture depends on the capacity of the entrepreneur to deal with all the risks involved correctly. Effective risk
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Personal Finance - Assignment Example For example, if demand for properties has gone up lately, hence mortgage rates will increase then. With the fixed rate deal, she could avoid such a risk. However, if she plans to repay the borrowed money faster than 2 years, which means short term financing; hence other financing opportunities may involve lower costs. Such as taking bank overdrafts (i.e. 5.90% at Alliance & Leicester Premier Direct1) or trade credits; trade credits is an available option if she borrows between 30 to 90 days and it's profitable for Jane since it does not include any interest charges. However, she must have a good credit record. Additionally, since the globalisation, deregulation of financial markets as well as technological advancements, customers around the world have now easier access to obtain finance around the world; which offers Jane an opportunity to choose the lowest rate possible. A good credit history enables Jane to reach a larger amount of financing opportunities. As illustrated above, trade credit does not involve any interest rates; however the customer should keep a good credit record. To ensure a good credit history, Jane should control her payments; such as ensuring that debts are paid by their due date, etc. Jane should gain information of the level of control of the lender. ... Both Annie and Gareth acquire a 10,000 lump sum. If they each put the 10,000 into a savings account paying 6% AER gross for one year, how much net interest would each of them receive after one year (50 words)) 6% of Pound Sterling 10,000= Pound Sterling 600 Tax is 20% on interest payable So, Pound Sterling 600-20%(Pound Sterling 120) = Pound Sterling 480 Hence, the net interest rate is 4.8%. If the inflation rate had been 3.5% over the year, what would be the real value of both Annie's and Gareth's total savings after one year (60 words) Real value equals to nominal interest rates minus inflation rate: 4.8% - 3.5= 1.3% 10,000+1.3%= 10,130 10,130 x 2= 20,260 (both Annie and Gareth) Annie is considering using her 10,000 to purchase shares in a large blue-chip company instead, with the idea that she would sell the shares after one year in order to purchase a car. Briefly outline the key factors that Annie should think about before making such an equity based investment. She should research about the company first. The risk involved of investing there, such as examining the company's financial performance, such as its balance sheet, cash flow, revenue statement, etc. How long the company has been established, is there any negative publicity, etc. These points assist Jane to avoid the risk of loosing her funds. She should also identify other opportunities, such as other companies which would be more profitable to invest in, such as established companies; i.e. Apple, Sony, etc. Additionally, she could also use her 10,000 to establish her own little business or join a partnership, etc; depending which one is more profitable and involves less risk. Moreover, she should also consider the flexibility of the company. Some companies require investors
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Dyson and Eureka Essay Bissell Homecare Inc. is an American vacuum cleaner manufacturer which has a rich heritage spanning 130 years of innovation. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, they improved on their initial carpet cleaner design and began manufacturing on a large-scale. Midway through the twentieth century, Bissell had gradually transformed into a full-fledged vacuum cleaner business by incorporating feature such as shampooer and integrated heater. BissellÃ¢â¬â¢s innovation was responsible for introducing deep cleaning into the mass market, which was once confined to commercial providers. Bissell has managed to build up a good reputation over the years by sustaining quality and building reliable products. Its cleaning business today is categorized into products such as deep cleaners, vacuum cleaners, bare floor cleaners and cleaning formulas. Their deep cleaners come in canister, upright and compact variants. They also include specialty attachments for cleaning couches, cars and electronic equipment. Bissell also does healthy business by selling accessories for its complete line of cleaning equipment. Bissell markets it specialty products to three different markets that include allergen control, eco-friendly and pet products. Recognizing the critical need for being environment conscious, BissellÃ¢â¬â¢s current strategy is to focus on its sustainable design objective. It has introduced cleaning products made of recyclable materials and adopted eco-friendly manufacturing techniques. For instance, one of its compact deep cleaners Ã¢â¬Å"Little GreenÃ¢â¬ does not contain PVC and is made of recycled materials, while its cleaning formula is free from phosphates and other toxic metals (Bissell 2008). It also manufactures a steam mop which eliminates the need for using chemical formulas that cause fumes. One of BissellÃ¢â¬â¢s noteworthy strategic initiatives is Ã¢â¬Ëclosed loop manufacturingÃ¢â¬â¢ which uses post consumer recycled materials to manufacture new deep cleaning and vacuuming equipment. Its chemical blow molding process uses reused resin from trimmed-off waste to manufacture new bottles. Bissell also has recycling programs for battery, paper, Styrofoam and computers in its premises. It is fulfilling its corporate social responsibility by doing charity work for children under the Ronald McDonald House Charities; it also contributes by collaborating with an online pet adoption community, Kent County Humane Society and Grand Rapids Public School system (Bissell Centre Annual Report 2007). These initiatives have been instrumental in providing Bissell an environment and socially conscious brand image. BissellÃ¢â¬â¢s primary competition comes from Hoover; other competitor brands worth mentioning are Dyson and Eureka. The pricing of Bissell products is quite comparable to other similar products in the market, thereby remaining competitive in the consumer market. Bissell vacuum cleaners are relatively easy to operate, more efficient and lighter in weight compared to the competition. Its reliable customer service is also noteworthy in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s consumer-driven market. Their vacuum cleaners are also widely available in retail outlets, online shops and home-improvement stores, thereby being easily accessible all over the country. However, their carpet cleaning variants are mostly available upon order owing to their size. Bissell have also smoothly transitioned into the age of information technology, as its website lucidly explains the features of its products and helps customers pick the right model for their requirement. BissellÃ¢â¬â¢s future objectives include venturing into untapped markets in the global arena and diversifying into allied industries. Its latest business venture is its purchase of Woolite, it effort to diversify into the upholstery and carpets domain. It is also in the process of constantly developing new products to simplify domestic cleaning while striving to make a greener tomorrow. Bissell is poised to conquer newer markets in the near future owing to the recent strides in globalization. Reference: Bissell. (2008). Earth-Friendly Cleaning Solutions for your Home. Retrieved 31 July 2008, http://www. bissell. com/Page_id/47134/Earth_Friendly_Products. aspx Bissell Centre. Bissell Centre Annual Report 2007. Retrieved 31 July 2008, http://www. bissellcentre. org/documents/annualreport. pdf
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
The Organisational Structure Of Fedex Commerce Essay Logistics is managing the flow of goods, information and other resources, including energy and people, between the point of origin and the point of destination to meet the requirements of consumers. The main functions of logistics include purchasing, inventory management, transportation, and warehousing. The transportation industry can be identified in three major sectors such as shipping, passenger transport and manufacturing of equipment. In this paper we discuss about shipping which is responsible for transportation of supplies. FedEx has acquired and realigned number of small companies and managed synergies in order to control more of the market. Acquisition strategy of FedEx has given opportunity to capture different areas of logistics and transportation business with different client base and locations thereby integrating their operations to achieve better synergies and economies of scale. Business without borders Having their own fleet enabled them to reconfigure their systems and reroute existing flights in order to take advantage of the markets. Same way feeding three costly networksair, ground, and information technology is extravagantly expensive. They operated in a Global scale in order to offer customers limitless opportunities thereby expanding customer base and achieve global economies of scale. FedEx involves in many Corporate Social Responsibility programs as a branding strategy by carrying pandas, penguins and whales across the countries to provide them with proper living conditions. Though this type of transportation is considered risky FedEx does this with affection in order to protect them. They maintain a strong brand name as a strategy and advantage of its brand image, the name that customers have counted on for reliable service and cutting edge technology. Frederick W. Smith Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer Fred Smith was a charismatic-visionary leader. He pioneered the transportation field and founded FedEx when he was 27 years of age. He had a desire, a drive to lead the company. He was confident, intelligent and also had the job-relevant knowledge in the field. His military background helped him to believe that the FedExs people are more valuable than technology. Fred always started thinking outside the normal which made FedEx a great success. Though he was a risk taker and invested highly in IT he succeeded in the business because of his visionary thinking and determination to go ahead. Fred re-shaped the entire transportation industry. FedEx believes in leadership through accessibility which makes all forms of interaction with customers. (b) Transportation and logistics infrastructure within FedEx Corporation FedEx acquired its own fleet of transport while competitors were hiring space on commercial airlines and sub-contracting their shipments to 3rd parties. With this, the need for booking space in commercial vessels ceased and FedEx experienced cost advantage over other companies. Landing larger freight planes were allowed after the de-regulation of the airline industry and using these reduced the operating cost. After de-regulation of the trucking industry, FedEx established regional trucking system further reduced the cost. FedExs unmatched air route authorities and infrastructure make it the worlds largest express transportation company, providing speedy, reliable and time-definite transportation with easy access to the locations. To cut down cost and time, packages from all over the country were flown to a central point or hub at night where traffic lanes were comparatively empty. Packages were sorted, redistributed at the hub and again flown to their ultimate destination to reach them next day. Even with the limitations such as adherence to the skyline regulations, ground clearance and administrative issues, FedEx managed to make this a turning point towards their success. (Please refer annexure page Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ for more details) Value added services such as multiple warehousing, scanners given to drivers to capture package information and overnight distribution system were external factors contributed to the growth in FedEx business. Just-in-time inventory management created demand for speed and accuracy in transportation and shortened the lead time for companies Integration between FedEx and customers blocked them from going to competitors. How it helped FedEx Michael Porters Value Chain C:UsersvirginiaDocumentsMBAMBA-Second yearGlobal Corporate strategyVIRGI FED EXvalue chain.png How FedEx reduced cost by applying value chain (refer document New FedEx and dragon) Primary activities Outbound Logistics Processing time at the local offices was reduced since they did not need to fill forms and attend to customers individually. In FedExs point of view reducing processing time means reducing labour costs. FedEx has achieved tremendous savings by strategic implementation of IT. Tools such as just-in-time manufacturing and total quality management are adopted for inventory control and enhancing of service quality. Marketing and Sales Information on customers preferences, geographical data and traffic volumes of each web page collected automatically. These data could be used for strategic initiatives, planning and marketing. World Wide Web is a low cost media for advertising in the global market and discovers potential markets. Packaging in a timely fashion was one of the marketing tools they used. Customer Service FedEx discovered that its advanced IT systems contain a mother lode of information about the profitability of each client. They knew which customers create how much profit, which actually end up costing FedEx. Secondary activities Procurement Strategic plans are developed with suppliers to support the process and development of new services. Transactions are managed through Web to achieve greater efficiency. Further they are streamlined through Electronic Data Interchange. FedEx had agreed upon better dealings with the fuel with suppliers. Human Resources FedEx will strive to develop mutually rewarding relationships with its employees, partners and suppliers. They recruited correct people and top positions were filled with competent managers. Further incentives, profit shares and internal promotions are given to keep the staff moral high in order to make their processes less costly and effective. They motivated the front liners conducted a fair treatment program to all staff. Information Technology When customers log onto the FedEx system they could place orders to pick up and pay using the credit cards which made greater convenience. Moving the process to the internet reshaped the transportation industry. In applying systems like Cosmos, PowerShip, EDI and Netscape integrated services supplied to customers are enormous. 1 (c) Virtual Information infrastructure at FedEx Corporation How it helped FedEx provides its customers supply chain solution from the point of raw materials to end of the product life cycle. Each stage of the supply chain has IT applications and systems that have been implemented by FedEx in order to fulfill efficient customer solutions. Some of the systems were transportation management solutions, order processing and related distribution centre operations, fulfillment, just-in-time inventory control, purchasing and production which provide peace of mind throughout the entire distribution cycle. COSMOS is a customer oriented services and management operating system. This Centralized computer system kept track of all packages handled by the company. This was made possible by placing a bar-code on each point of pickup making greater reliability to its customers. Further data package movement, pickup, invoicing and delivering data to central data base. PowerShip Features such as Label printing, on-line packaging pickup request, package tracing and stored frequently used addresses of most active customers. EDI and Internet This allowed companies to build one-to-one relationship with customers was the perfect scenario for manufactures. They could match supply and demand without wastage. Agreement with Nescape to adopt their software as the primary technology for accessing its corporate intranet sites. Advantages of the Nescape are mentioned below. Customers would build integrated websites using FedEx application Free down load from fedex.com which incorporated a link enabling them to track packages directly from their own site. Enhancement to package-tracking service. Information with regard to 25 shipments can be checked simultaneously and forward same to three e-mail recipients. Some countries are able to access information in their native language. FedEx claimed to have the largest on-line client server network in the world that operated in real time Web based application 1994 (write) FedEx can reach customers in other countries more easily through internet. This will further expand operations at FedEx in the global market. A creative alliance with marketplace will allow FedEx to tap into the growing e-commerce market for consumers. Web surfers link different companies web sites, where they can order a variety of products and services. IT infrastructure will support supply chain operations. The FedEx website was launched in 1994 and included a package tracking application and allowed customers to generate their own unique bar-coded shipping labels. The web site provided speedy and customer focused features. OUTBOUND TRANSPORTATION AND DELIVERY ORDER MANAGEMENT MANUFACTURING INBOUND (PURCHASING) SUPPLIER Stages of the Supply Chain FedEx Systems Applications GIVS IMI Multiship Custom Clearance system Transportation Optimization system Global Inventory visibility System (GIVS) Inventory Management Systems (IMI) GIVS IMI Warehouse management systems (WMS) Transport management systems (TMS) Customer clearance system Enterprise resource planning ERP IMI (including invoicing) The FedEx Integrated Logistics Solution FEDEX SOLUTIONS FOR THE ENTIRE SUPPLY CHAIN Strategy Bob de wit Ron Meyer (Page 653) (Please refer annexure for detailed explanation of the systems and application of supply chain at FedEx) Evaluation FedEx has developed many innovative services that would not be possible without its strong IT capability. IT expansion at FedEx effectively created a barrier to new entrants in this industry. Even though FedExs coverage to supply chain through integrated systems by tightening, improving and synchronizing the various parts of the supply chain, it was no longer a competitive advantage but a competitive imperative as the customers saw the benefits of squeezing time and inventory out of the system. The virtual information infrastructure at FedEx immensely supported to maintain the market leadership in the past years. They have forecasted the future in a positive direction and implemented correct decision by funding on IT development. Throughout the years this has helped FedEx to reduce cost, minimize process time and become customer focused and ultimately increased the profit margins which helped in a growth in global GDP and International trade. Even though FedEx has highly invested on IT for upgrading on a periodical basis, technical issues such backup systems, virus protection, handling issues with web hacking have been successfully addressed in order to remain in the market leader position. BRANDING AND BUSINESS STRUCTURE UP UNTIL 19 JANUARY 2000 Mergers and acquisitions (MA) Introduction 2.0.1. Mergers Joining of two or more companies to form a single legal entity can be defined as a merger. The assets of the smaller company are merged in to the larger. Share holders of the smaller company (or the target company) will be bought over by the acquiring company. In general mergers take place in a friendly setting. Executives of the respective companies participate in a due diligence process to ensure a successful combination of all areas of business. 2.0.2. Acquisitions Purchasing of more than 50% of voting shares of a company by another company is an acquisition. Both companies can continue as separate legal entities. Acquiring company will be the parent company (or holding company) and the target company will be the subsidiary. Acquisition may take place through a hostile takeover by purchasing the majority of shares of the company in the open market. (Source:A Simple M Model for all Seasons by Bu Sam Rovit, David Harding, and Catherine Lemire) 2.0.3. Mergers and acquisitions strategies Mergers and Acquisitions are a common strategy in Global Logistics and Transportation industry by which companies in the industry expand geographically and increase the reach and access. 2.1 Benefits and limitations of MA strategies in the Global Transportation and Logistics industry 2.1.1. Benefits Obtain maximum value and create sustainable competitive advantage Increase output Obtain new technologies, expertise and provide entire new products Improved focus on core skills of the firm Improvements in use of the brand names Increased consumer welfare and overall cost reduction from the joint consumption of complementary products Fastest method to achieve growth Creating a broad and deep product portfolio Strength in storage sales and services Integrate technologies and practices across entire product line such as strong capabilities in data archiving, manage products to better address the regulatory compliance and market opportunity Capability to integrate disparate business processes and information into one common framework Quicker and cheaper growth of the organization, synergies of market size and distribution channels, easier finance (revenue and cost synergies), economies of scale, gaining customers, cost efficiencies, improved infrastructure. Achieving maximum benefit of synergies by integration Reduction in transaction cost and transportation cost Fulfilling increasing / complex customers demands Redesigning of the global supply chain Obtain excess capacity in terms of production and warehousing facilities Mergers and acquisitions improve market efficiency by capturing synergies between firms. May help in removing inefficient management or to respond to economic shocks 2.1.2. Limitations Most of the studies have shown that mergers have failure rates of more than 50 percent Acquisitions are complex and difficult to execute and manage successfully. The companies should have the ability to integrate the technical know-how and the resources to bring that know-how to market products. In mergers and acquisitions there may be a significant impact on corporate culture. The purchasing company sets the quality bar high for the people in the company to be acquired. The companies cultural norms will be will be reinforced by the innovation, collaboration and integrity and customer focus of those employees. Generally there are clashes in such a situation. Though companies expect the synergies from take overs, it is found that acquiring companies lose about 10% of their value during the first five years after mergers. 2.2. How FedEx Corporation managed the acquisition of Caliber Systems in 1998- whether it is a success or failure FedEx Acquisition History up to year 2000 YEAR ACQUISITION OVERVIEW 1984 Gelco Express International FedEx dramatically expands its presence outside of the U.S. with the acquisition of Gelco Express, a worldwide courier with service to 84 countries. 1989 Tiger International Inc. With the integration of the Flying Tiger Line, FedEx becomes the worlds largest full-service, all-cargo airline. The acquisition includes routes to 21 countries, a fleet of cargo aircraft including Boeing 747s, facilities throughout the world and Flying Tigers expertise in international airfreight. 1998 Caliber System Inc. FedEx creates FDX Corporation (later renamed FedEx Corporation) and grows its portfolio of services with the addition of ground small-package carrier RPS (now FedEx Ground), Western U.S. less-than-truckload carrier Viking Freight (now part of FedEx Freight), Caliber Logistics (now FedEx Supply Chain Services), Caliber Technology (now part of FedEx Services) and Roberts Express (now FedEx Custom Critical). 2000 Tower Group International Inc. World Tariff Ltd. FedEx Corp. creates FedEx Trade Networks. Today, FedEx Trade Networks is one of the largest-volume customs entry filers in North America and provides FedEx customers with end-to-end transportation and customs clearance solutions around the world. acquisitions history.cfm.htm 2.2.1 Caliber Systems FedEx acquired caliber systems in 1998 and five separate subsidiary companies were formed such as Federal Express, RPS (Roadway package Systems), Robert express, Viking freight and FDX Logistics. They focused mainly on the small package business. Each subsidiary was managed separately and was responsible for its own accounts. Caliber had developed its expertise in moving raw materials, plates of steel bars and managed in work-in-progress. It manufactured cars and fork-lift trucks. After acquisition FedEx started offering other services besides express shipping. 22.214.171.124. Federal Express Federal Express was the world leader in global express distribution. They offered 24 to 48 hours delivery. Also was the leader in overnight package delivery business. Goods shipped ranged from flowers to lobsters to computer components. 126.96.36.199. RPS RPS was the second largest ground small package delivery of business-to-business. Also it was a low cost, non-union, technology-savvy company. Shipments were done in one to three days. RPS had the lowest cost models in the transportation industry. With the take-over by FedEx, RPS moved on to business-to-consumer delivery service and took advantage of electronic commerce. They operated through independent truckers who are contractors and specialized in delivering small packages between businesses at rates lower than UPS. 188.8.131.52. Viking Freight This was the first less-than-truck-load freight carrier in western USA. They shipped 13,000 packages per day. 184.108.40.206. Robert Express This was the worlds leading surface-expedited carrier for non-stop, time critical and special-handling shipments. This was the smallest company within the FedEx group. Robert Express Exclusively allowed customers greater control at a price. They had a limited number of aircrafts but they had to pay for use and crew time. 220.127.116.11. Caliber Logistics Caliber logistics was the pioneer in providing customized, integrated logistics and warehousing solutions worldwide. The acquisition of caliber brought over the-road transportation and warehousing capabilities. Caliber Logistics was renamed as FDX Logistics. 2.3 Merging of Caliber Logistics and FLEC New company was FedEx Logistics brought together all splintered operations of logistics in all the subsidiaries, streamlined costs and presented one menu of logistic services offered to clients. They aligned R D of systems upon common, agreed platform. 2.4. HOW FEDEX MANAGED THE ACQUISITION OF CALIBER SYSTEMS? Acquisition contributed to reinforce FedEx commitment to become more than just a delivery company. With the acquisition, company image was transformed to a holding company. Accordingly company changed its name to FedEx Corporation. FedEx managed the subsidiaries by operating independently, each company focused exclusively on delivering the best service for its specific market. They competed collectively. Under the FedEx banner they offered entirely different services, different customer terms and different sales procedures. Usage of IT resources spread among the group. FedEx introduced a one-stop shopping as solution for all levels of supply chain. This was the ultimate goal of FedEx in order to bring the subsidiaries closer together to create synergy. FedEx brand name had been inculcated in the peoples minds throughout the years. This strong global brand name and the brand image created among the entire world from the inception had sufficient market for FedEx to operate even after acquisition. Operating under the FedEx banner created customer confidence although the companies acquired were operating in their own names. Acquisition improved FedExs non-express delivery capabilities and brought in other new businesses to the company. When UPS had the advantage of promoting just one brand, UPS was to sell the entire company and the services it offered. Acquisition of Caliber Systems enabled FedEx to match UPS in offering a wide variety of delivery options. But, UPSs extensive network for making door-to-door deliveries was far ahead of FedEx. Business at UPS was slightly affected after the acquisition of Caliber Systems by FedEx. Further the strategies adopted by the FedEx management such as enhancing business capabilities though IT and building up strong relationships regularly with clients and communication with the global market, created competitive advantage at the time of acquisition of the Caliber Systems. Hence acquisition of the Caliber Systems by FedEx was a success. 3.1 DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNET MARKET AND E-TAILING http://media.techtarget.com/searchCIO/images/spacer.gif http://media.techtarget.com/searchCIO/images/spacer.gif Internet is the extensive, worldwide computer network available to the public. It is interconnected to computer networks that are connected by internetworking. E-tailing (electronic retailing) means the selling of retail goods via Internet. E-tailing done mostly with business-to-consumer (B-to-C) transactions. E-tailing began to work for some major corporations and smaller entrepreneurs were started around year 1997. (Source: http://searchcio.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid182_gci212079,00.html) 3.2. How internet/e-tailing had been applied to the transportation and logistics industry? At the time when the web based purchases were growing, UPS one of FedEx competitors were ahead of them in terms of ground transport. FedEx identified the booming opportunities arising with the growth in internet based purchases. FedEx bought over Caliber System in January 1999 and the aim was to enhance the reach of business to business coverage while catering to increasing demand from internet based buying. FedEx anticipated growth in ecommerce and planned to start FedEx Home Delivery to co-op specializing in business-to-consumer e-tailing. At that time, in 1997 FedEx was handling shipping for only 10% of all goods sold online, compared to the 55% handled by UPS. In 1999 FedEx signed up with CISCO with mission of critical one stop online source for sales tools and client information. Web portals such as Yahoo! had been offering store-building services for some time, as did all other Internet service providers. By that time UPS, their main competitor was had been offering the same services since 1997 through vendors Harbinger Corp. and IBM Corp. FedEx started to offer its ecommerce Builder Internet platform free to clients later, with e-commerce services. 3.3. Non-financial performance at FedEx in the context of Internet market and e- Tailing Internet was the basis for competition. It opened opportunities in logistics management as most businesses started integration with customer supply chains using the internet. FedEx had the right business model to take advantage of this opportunity. Growth in e-tailing needed assistance of express transportation to fulfill the customer expectations and FedEx already was a giant in the field achieved advantage over the situation. FedEx was the leader in the market and enjoyed a strong brand image in the transport and logistics industry. Even though they identified and anticipated enormous opportunities which came up with the development in e-tailing, UPS was the leader in ground transportation. FedEx made a smart move by buying over Caliber Logistics and later integrating all systems and a powerful technical architecture that enabled internet commerce usage. The competition became fierce with the as the major transportation companies were betting big on technology. Even though FedEx were investing millions on IT and introduced internet in 1994, it became the industry norm rather than a competitive advantage. FedEx developed all its software in-house where competitors like UPS formed strategic alliances with Open Market Inc., and worked with IBM. One of main reasons for FedExs successful performance financially and non-financially was that they identify anticipate the changes and adopt themselves accordingly. 3.4. Financial performance at FedEx in the context of Internet market and e-tailing Online holiday shopping, which accounted for $650 million in 1997, grew to rapidly $4 billion over the holiday season of 1999. By the end of year 2000, more than 20,000 client Web sites were linked to the FedEx Marketplace, and the ecommerce Builder unit had secured around 2,000 customers. Despite the analysts concerns their earnings totaled $688 million on sales of $18 billion. The expected growth associated with e-tailing was USD 7.0 billion in 2000 and USD 327 billion in business-to- business presented enormous opportunities for FedEx. (Source: http://ecommerce.hostip.info/pages/444/Fedex-Corp-MOVE-INTERNET.html) Annual report of 1999 reflects that the growth in revenue as follows. Year Growth in Revenue 1999 5.67% 1998 11.48% 1997 11.91% 1996 8.5% 1995 13.76% FedExs average revenue growth is around 10%. In year 1999 this has reduced to 5.67% which they claim as a result of the high fuel price. FedEx has invsted in IT and was Market share growth REFER ANNUAL REPORTS DATA
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Freedom This book was written in the middle to late twentieth century. Generally, this book dealt with Indians living in East Africa. The book is set in native Tanzania where Vassanji was raised after his family moved from his birthplace Nairobi. This book is a collection of short stories that chronically move from the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s early childhood until he returns to his homeland years later to find that much has changed from his childhood. There are many issues that are intertwined into the text that Vassanji incorporates to relay his stories. Being a part of the lower class Indian community in Tanzania during the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s, there is much class struggle. There is an instance early in the book where massive discrimination is evident in the book. Ã¢â¬Å"Schools went through preparation and drill for the royal visit.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"But to my great disappointment only the higher forms were allowed to welcome the princess.Ã¢â¬ The narrator overcame this discrimination by working through the crowd and essentially got a glimpse of the young queen. This was one of the more symbolic scenes in the book. The narrator overcame oppression here on a small scale as he later will by leaving Africa and going to a University in North America. The market place called the Ã¢â¬Å"MnudaÃ¢â¬ was a place of massive thievery and just not a good place to go. However, many members of the Ã¢â¬Å"communityÃ¢â¬ would go to the Ã¢â¬Å"MnudaÃ¢â¬ to pick up odds and ends. The point is that this is a low class society we are dealing with. Later on there is a mention of green government trucks that randomly show up in the streets of Tanzania during the night. Green government trucks just give the impression that the government has something to fear if they are sending out Ã¢â¬Å"watchdogÃ¢â¬ trucks to keep an eye on the demos or population. This example just shows the kind of totalitarian government that was in place during the mid-twentieth century in this part of Africa. Just a reminiscent of 1984 and the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"big brother Ã¢â¬ mentioned in that novel. It seems this type of ruling is in place around the narrator at this time. The family of the narrator would go on to have their own lives. When the narrator prepares for going to the University, he talks about his sisters already married.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
There are two reasons why The Aeneid is associated with the Shakespearean play Antony and Cleopatra. First, The Aeneid was written by a Roman named Virgil who, among many other reasons, wrote it as a tribute for Augustus Caesar, the leader of the Roman Empire. Augustus Caesar was formally named Octavian and is a character in Shakespeare's play. Secondly, both The Aeneid and Antony and Cleopatra share a common theme of a patriotic, heroic man having to choose between duty to his country and the passionate love of a beautiful, foreign and strong queen. In The Aeneid, the lovers are Aeneas and Dido and Antony and Cleopatra are the lovers in Shakespeare's play. First, an overview of the books of The Aeneid in which Aeneas is with Dido is needed in order to fully understand the historical connection, and the thematic comparison to Antony and Cleopatra. "The Aeneid tells the story of the Trojan hero Aeneas's perilous flight from Troy to Italy following the Trojan War. In Italy, Aeneas's descendents are destined to found Rome" (Sparknotes). However, Aeneas does not go straight to Italy because having been blown off course by a storm, he makes a stop at Carthage and allows himself to stay there and fall in love with the leader of Carthage, Dido (Slavitt 103). Dido is a "Phoenician princess who fled her home and founded Carthage after her brother murdered her husband" (Sparknotes). While in Carthage, Aeneas recounts the story of the Trojan War. Impressed by Aeneas's adventures and sympathetic to his suffering, Dido falls in love with Aeneas. They live together as lovers for a period, until the gods remind Aeneas of his duty to found a new city. Upon this reminder from the Gods, Aeneas leaves Carthage and sets sail to Italy. Dido is deva... ... and the passionate love of a beautiful, foreign and strong queen. And, they are connected through the historical figure Augustus Caesar, for whom The Aeneid honors and Antony and Cleopatra portrays. Works Cited Bevington, David, ed. The Necessary Shakespeare. New York: Pearson Education, Inc, 2005. Ã¢â¬Å"Great Lovers: Antony and Cleopatra.Ã¢â¬ ABC Radio National. 2005. 1 Nov 2006 . Rose, Mark, ed. Twentieth Century Interpretations of Antony and Cleopatra. Eaglewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc, 1977. Slavitt, David R. Virgil. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991. Sparknotes. 2006. 1 Nov 2006 . Toohey, Peter. Reading Epic: An Introduction to the Ancient Narratives. London: Routledge, 1992. Virgil. The Aeneid. Trans. C. Day Lewis. New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc, 1953.
Monday, January 13, 2020
The Penan is a mobile native that roamed on the land of Sarawak Bumi Kenyalang and some other parts on Brunei Bandar Seri Begawan. They are a extremely evolved classless society and small gender division. Man and adult females shared largely the jobs among them. Such as, garnering the forest merchandise and extracted sago from the sago thenar. But they are still some portion of jobs was male dominated. For illustration, hunting. The Penan practiced the rite of Ã¢â¬ËMolong Ã¢â¬Ë which means Ã¢â¬Ënever return more than necessary Ã¢â¬Ë . That had made them the hunter-gatherers. Not every of the Penans are mobile hunter-gatherers. The present Penans are consisted with settled, semi-nomadic and entire mobile communities that to the full reliant to the wood merchandises. Presents, the figure of Penan had officially stated approximate to 10,000 people and around 350-500 of them are mobile that scattered over Ulu Baram, Limbang, Tutoh and Lawas of Sarawak. Normally the mobile Penan moves in group that consisted about 40 people included kids and old people. They do non stayed for a long clip in a peculiar topographic point. Once the resources at the topographic point that they stayed became fewer, they will take other suited topographic points and moved once more. ( Figures retrievedfrom:hypertext transfer protocol: //www.survival-international.org) I have to contract down the range to the group of mobile Penan that I would wish to analyze approximately. The mobile people that lived in the forest rely much on their traditional diet- Sago ( amylum from the Sago thenar ) . As the Penan people valued the environment so much, merely the matured and to the full adult sago thenar trees will be cut down. The leader will do certain an sum of sago starched plenty from a individual or a few sago thenar trees and kept adequately for their supply. After that no more sago thenar will be chop down until they are ran out of nutrient. Besides that, the Penan besides preys on meat. And the protein result in their day-to-day diet was contributed by largely wild Sus scrofas, mouse cervid and monkeys. The huntsmans Hunt by utilizing a blowtube, made with the Belian wood and carved out with a bone drill. The darts that they used are made from the sago thenar Ã¢â¬Ës tree bark and on its tip ; the Penan dipped it with sort of powerful toxicant latex that extracted from a tree from the wood. However, their manner of life is about to alter due to the force per unit areas that forced them to accommodate the cultivation of seting and domestic animate being genteelness.Issue to lift:As the Real GDP ( gross domestic production ) growing in Malaysia since the twelvemonth of 1999 to 2007 had improved in great per centum, Malaysia authorities had put a tonss of affords on the lumber industry in Sarawak territory. Sarawak was blessed with tonss of valuable trees. The authorities puts a strong accent on the processing lumber that can maximise the local net incomes. It is believe vital to maintain up with the big demand from Japan, India and the Far East states. Ironically, logging seems to convey great blessings to the state, in Sarawak it destroys legion of sago thenar and consuming a huge country of rain forest that the Penan people lived in. Poorly planned logging trails had caused the issues of Earth eroding, landslides and the silting of watercourses happened. The state of affairs had affected the functional relation among the Penan and the wood. Once the large trees were removed, shortly the secondary bushy forest will take over the bare wood bed. Meat becomes difficult to track and fruits that used to be big go less abundant. The Penan is holding troubles in roll uping and runing their nutrient. Resistance from both the settled and nomads were fierce. The authorities faced a difficult clip from those natives. The Sarawak authorities had frequently stated to convey upon the issue and promised to offer development to the Penan. About all nomads Penan go up against with logging and it happened to be immense spread of swearing and understanding between the authorities and the Penan. The authorities puzzled why would anyone desire so much to populate in the jungle and trusting thoughtfully the Penan will comes to their senses. On the other manus, the Penan had lost faith in their authorities as more and more bulldozers driven through their forest. In their position, logging merely convey them catastrophes and they will lose it all if they move a measure rearward from their base on protecting the forest. What is more, at the same clip they see the pristine forest been tear down, holding their districts distorted into oil thenar and acacia plantations is a calamity. Anyhow, as now the Penan had come across the job, they have a pick to do. Shall they stand firmed on their rule and allow the resistance of deforestation continued or merely accept what the authorities had offered and worked in tandem to predominate societal harmoniousness and peace? Can they defy the Penan society to alter? Surely it is a difficult determination to do, there are excessively many valuable things will hold to waive and finally became memory. Harmonizing to Bilton T, Bonnet K and the bookmans,the diverseness and changeableness of societal constructions are a centre subject, together with the disclosure that human action can recast societal dealingss and establishments ; it reveals the human potency for release and originative societal Reconstruction. ( Introductory Sociology: 2nd edition, Bilton T, Bonnet K, Jones P, Stanworth M, Sheard K and Webster A. 1987. Mackays of Chatham PLC, Kent ) Harmonizing to the statement above, societal alterations that happened to the Penan folk was due to the ground of rewording and retracing into a broad and originative society. But the point that I want to reason here is- Does the folk want to alter? Considered upon the motivation that they fight over their rights on the land and the forest, I strongly doubted their willingness in altering their societal concept and their societal life. There was a cause that forced them to travel out from the jungle ; there was a cause to necessitate them to give up their nature root. And it is our responsibility to unveil the secret. Social alteration was defined as the clip when external events happened, such as war and conquering and civilization contact and diffusion, or environmental factors or internal events, such as inventions, innovation and population displacements harmonizing to Barbara Marliene S. & A ; Mary Ann A. Schwartz ( 2006 ) In this point of position, the society of Penan changed when development and wealth interfered. Some of them accepted it and follow a new life manner yet some resisted it and willing to pay any monetary value to defence their existent life. Yet, this diffusion, the spread of civilization traits from one society to another, is the inevitable consequence of contact between civilizations. With modern communicating engineerings making into the most distant corners of the Earth, the rate of diffusion has accelerated dramatically since the bend of the 20th century. ( Sociology: Making sense of the societal universe, 2nd edition, Barbara Marliene Scott & A ; Mary Ann A. Schwartz. 2006, Allyn and Bacon Pearson. ) The societal alteration of the Penan folk was occurred because of the civilization contact and diffusion harmonizing to the statement above. When the civilization of new economic bloom and the up raise national income due to timber industries scatter to the land Sarawak, the districts of the Penan folk was the chief locale to be affected. For illustration, big graduated table of logging operation encroach their land doing them to endure under the pollutions. Their H2O catchment countries were polluted with sediment supplanting, many sago thenars were lost ; wild Sus scrofa, cervid and other game became scarce, the fruit trees and medical specialty purposed herb were difficult to happen. Therefore, their epinephrine prepared them to contend or flight. The consequence of societal alteration among the Penan is staying negative in footings of the authorities position. The Penan chose to contend. For illustration, many encirclements were set up in effort to halt logging operations on their land. Unfortunately, the attempts were difficult to transport on and the state of affairs turns bad with huge graduated table of clangs between the autochthonal community and the province supported logging company. For illustration, SamLing Corporation, lead by CEO Yew Chee Ming, COO James Ho Yam Kong. In association with the honest main curate Ã¢â¬Ës privilege company known as STIDC. The Malayan Timber Certificate Council ( MTCC ) had granted the companies with a logging grant. It is average that they have the power to log even on the land that traditionally inhabited by the natives of Sarawak. Apart from the ground of civilization diffusion, the societal alteration that happened among the Penan was due to the cause of demographic tendencies. That is to state every birth, decease, and migration rates can impact the size and composing of a population, which in bend, can hold a major impact on a society.Barbara Marliene Scott& A ; Mary Ann A. Schwartz ( 2006 ) .For illustration, scarceness of nutrient and taint of environment. Presents, the Penan is covering with the exact jobs that I have stated above. Their nutrient becomes difficult to achieve and the inhabited environment was contaminated. These sorts of state of affairs makes their life in the jungle becomes tough and unease. On the other manus, the member in the group is keep diminishing due to migration. Migration refers to the motion of people into or out of a geographical country ( Barbara S & A ; Mary A, 2006 ) . This is to state, many child who grew up in the mobile group choose to travel out from the community and headed to the life manner in the metropolis. The birth rate in the group becomes lesser and lesser as the immature people instead choose a partner from the metropolis than they own people that stayed in the group. As clip base on ballss, merely old coevals and some few immature people will remain on. Finally, their group will turn out to be a smaller group and possibly faded off. It was non something surprise with the reactions that the mobile presented. Harmonizing to Barbara S & A ; Mary A ( 2006 ) ,the behaviour that is likely to emerge in such state of affairs is called corporate behaviour, the comparatively self-generated and unstructured behaviour engagevitamin D in by big Numberss of people who are responding to a common stimulation. ( Sociology: 2nd edition, doing sense of the societal universe. Pg63. 2006. Barbara Marliene Scott & A ; Mary Ann A. Schwartz. Allyn and Bacon Pearson ) The corporate behaviours that the Penan folk had were the attitude that they had shown. Such as, the confrontations with the logging companies and the encirclements that they had made. Corporate behaviours take many signifiers. Some are short-period, self-generated and unstructured. But some are durable, formalistic and well-planned. The signifier the Penan folk used to oppose their dissension was categorized in the center, which is societal motion. It tends to be long -lasting because it has to accomplish a certain end of altering societal order in some cardinal method. For case, the leaders of the Penan folk have a good organized program to achieve their end of continuing their rights on the land. They even met with Al-Gore and Prince Charles sing to their jobs. Harmonizing to Barbara Marliene Scott & A ; Mary Ann A. Schwartz, 2006 in Sociology 2nd edition-making sense of the societal universe, contemn the tremendous power of social establishments and other societal forces against the control of persons, formal organisations of single activism are frequently important to societal alteration and can sometimes agitate the foundation of a society. Such has been the instance with assorted actions that had taken to demo their dissatisfaction, including the protesting that brought upon the media and how the folk fought against the political power and obtained the opportunities to talk out to the universe. In my sentiment, the ways that the Penan took in protesting their disfavor was in the in-between portion of corporate behaviour and societal motion. It is non every bit well-structural as the societal motion because of their by and large free-form attack. Apart from that, it does non involved big Numberss of people. Compares to societal motion, t he manner that the Penan acquired was merely engaged comparatively little sum of people, such as their leaders and alders. It besides consisted a end ; a ground to contend for. So, it can besides be said a end oriented corporate behaviour. But, by deriving the impulse in their opposition and expostulation, they are to state a little measure from becomes societal motion and possibly, it might win in the hereafter!Decision:As everyone can see, societal alteration is non a little affair. Many facets in life have to be considered. Individual, groups, communities are loath to alter and confronting large battle to set from the life manner and conditions that they had used with. At the same clip the society have to differ themselves to keep existing conditions. For case, as jersey and denim has been introduced to the Penan, they have ever preferred chawat. However, when the clip has come, alterations have to be done. Conflicts and contradictions will happen within the procedure for certain . The Penan resists change because of their romanticized impression of traditional values and Ã¢â¬Å" the good old yearss Ã¢â¬ . ( Barbara S, Mary A, 2006 ) For illustration, the Penan people valued their forest home ground and their traditional rites really much, they like to bathe in the river ; they enjoyed the hunting activities ; they have used to every trees in the jungle. The fright of losing each of them caused them hesitated to have alterations. Not merely that, mobile Penan resists alterations merely merely because of inactiveness ; they have becomes complacent, even if their lives are far less than ideal. ( Barbara S, Mary A, 2006 ) Changes required people to make something different, and it may do a batch of uncomfortableness. Often, the leaders who accept the legitimacy of position quo would likely defy alterations the most. This is because with the credence, it might coerce them to reconsider the genuineness in the old society that used to specify their full intent and power. They might besides afraid of losing their people Black Marias and their prestigiousness in the society to the present authorities. Some mobile Penan refuses to accept alterations due to the miscommunication and misinformation. ( Barbara S, Mary A, 2006 ) . For illustration, the Penan regarded the present authorities as something bad, and they are bad in the context of infiltrated their land and infringed on their rights. It was clearly shown with the logging systems. During the stay of Bruce Parry, the leaders came from afar merely to inquire Bruce to direct their message to the authorities of British so that they can take over the authorities once more. They felt ferocious and anguish towards the Sarawak authorities Ã¢â¬Ës making. Affords to advance societal alteration expected to see opposition been provoked as there will ever be person who do non derive anything or lost something if non everything due to the procedure of alterations. So, the phenomenon of the Penan opposition is natural and it is common if they persisted in their expostulation. Personally to state, the 1 who in charge of the forestation in Sarawak should hold been more justness to the people. Government should be the listening ear for the people non the taking manus. Merely the righteous authorities can last everlastingly in the people Black Marias.Mentions:hypertext transfer protocol: //www.survival-international.orgIntroductory Sociology: 2nd edition, Bilton T, Bonnet K, Jones P, Stanworth M, Sheard K and Webster A. 1987. Mackays of Chatham PLC, KentSociology: 2nd edition, doing sense of the societal universe. Pg63. 2006. Barbara Marliene Scott & A ; Mary Ann A. Schwartz. Allyn and Bacon Pearson